To participate in
the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must
agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC
construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet
the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable
performance in each criterion.
This test method is
designed to determine those fibrous or particulate material constructions
which exhibit sufficient resistance to smoldering cigarette ignition to meet
the UFAC construction criteria. Such constructions commonly are used for
loose or semi-attached backs, arms, or throw pillows. The materials covered
by this test method include, but are not limited to:
Staple of natural
and man-made fibers.
Shredded foamed or
cellular filling materials.
Composites of any
of these, together with any protective interliners which may be necessary
to meet the requirements of the test method.
horizontal panels are assembled on three specimen holders, using the UFAC
Standard Type I mattress ticking as the cover fabric. A lighted cigarette is
placed in the crevice formed by the abutment of the vertical and horizontal
panels in each test assembly, and is covered by sheeting fabric. The
cigarettes are allowed to burn their full lengths unless an obvious ignition
occurs. Test observations are recorded. A minimum of three test specimens is
required for each sample tested.
Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture
substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.
IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the
test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon
experience in this type of testing.
Fibrous or particulate filling/padding material being tested.
Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.
of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including
the area which is only discolored by smoke.
V. TEST MATERIALS
SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without
filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and
with a packing density of 0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm3 (0.16 ± 0.01 oz./in3) and a
total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 ± 0.004 oz). Pall Mall non-filtered
cigarettes ordinarily will meet these specifications.
April 1, 1990
MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m2 (3.7
± 0.8 oz/yd2), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants,
shall be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut
into squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).
Cover fabric shall be 100% cotton mattress ticking conforming to federal
Specification CCC-C-436E, cloth, ticking, twill, cotton: UFAC Standard
Type I fabric. It shall be laundered and tumble-dried once before using.
The method of laundering shall be the UFAC Standard Method of
Laundering--1990. This material can be obtained from several commercial
POLYURETHANE FOAM HORIZONTAL SUBSTRATE: Polyether type polyurethane
foam which meets the requirements of UFAC Filling/Padding Component Test
Method--1990, Part A, containing no inorganic fillers or flame retardants,
having a density of 24 ± 1.6 kg/m3 (1.5 ± 0.1 lb/ft3): UFAC Standard
Polyurethane foam. This material can be obtained from several commercial
The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system
for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.
EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable
fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.
AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be
provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or
components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or
burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.
linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used
to measure char length.
APPARATUS: In addition to the above enumerated items, straight pins, a
knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to
perform the testing.
holder shall consist of two wooden panels, each nominal 203 x 203 mm
(8.0 x 8.0 in) and nominal 19 mm (0.75 in) thickness, joined together at
one edge. As shown in Figure I, a movable horizontal panel support is
positioned on a centrally located guide.
removable vertical panel, nominal 203 x 203 x 19 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 0.75
inches) is used to support the vertical specimen being tested. It shall
have been marked on its back surface with a pencil line around all four
sides, 12 mm (0.5 in) from each edge.
TEST APPARATUS (Click here to
If an interliner
is required for a particulate material, prepare for testing by sewing
three knife-edge bags 254 x 254 mm (10.0 x 10.0 in), using the same
interior fabric or other interliner material to be used in manufacturing
the finished piece of furniture. Each bag is filled with 40 ± 2 grams of
test particulate material.
If no interliner
is required, a quantity of material is used which is sufficient to fill
three assembled vertical panels (Para. 3.b. below) to simulate the backs
of finished upholstered pieces.
If an interliner
is required, place a sewn bag test specimen on each removable vertical
support panel, covering it with the piece of 305 x 305 mm (12.0 x 12.0
in) Standard Type I Cover Fabric. Pull the cover fabric around the back
of each panel and staple into place on all four sides of the panel,
matching the fabric edges to the pencil lines 12 mm (0.5 in) from the
F/PCTM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990
If no interliner
is required, spread the Standard Type I cover fabric directly over the
face of each removable vertical support panel. Pull the fabric around to
the back of the panel and staple on three sides, matching the fabric
edges to the pencil lines 12 mm (0.5 in) from the panel edges. This will
create a pocket to be filled with the test specimen. Match the fourth
fabric edge to its pencil line and staple.
assembled vertical panel in the specimen holder as shown in the
illustration. See Figure III.
horizontal standard polyurethane foam substrate piece with a 203 x 254
mm (8.0 x 10.0 in) piece of standard cover fabric so that the top
surface is completely covered and the long direction of the fabric
continues over the crevice edge and partially covers the bottom surface.
See Figure III. Pin the cover fabric in place, top and bottom. Place
each horizontal panel into the specimen holder so that it presses
against the test specimen panel and a snug fit is obtained between
vertical and horizontal panels. Press the horizontal panel against the
test specimen panel to create a straight-line crevice at the
intersection, 110 ± 2 mm long (4.5 ± 0.5 in). Use a felt-tip device to
mark the ends of the crevice.
PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC.
LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY
SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR
ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.
All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including
polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a
temperature of 21o ± 3oC (70o ± 4o F) and between 50% and 66% relative
humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room
conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room,
then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are
removed from the conditioning room.
Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum
vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft-preventive enclosure to
restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.
specimen holder shall be placed on a table in a draft-free area. Light
three cigarettes and place one cigarette on each of the three test
assemblies such that the cigarette lies in the crevice and against the
vertical panel, equally spaced from each side. Immediately cover the
cigarette with a piece of sheeting material, smoothing it over the
cigarette to insure intimate contact. A finger run over the covered
cigarette insures good fabric-to-cigarette contact. Pin top edge of
sheeting to the vertical panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) above the
is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs;
otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has
burned its entire length on each of the
test specimens or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinquished on the
sample. A self-extinquished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly
lighted cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2)
above are met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharred
area of the specimen or on a new test assembly.
cigarette is consumed, the test fixture is left undisturbed for 30
minutes and monitored for any evolvement of smoke or heat which might
If an obvious
ignition occurs on any of the three specimens, extinguish the smoldering
materials, record the results of the test, and test three additional
If there is
evolvement of smoke or heat at the end of the 30-minute monitoring
period on any of the three specimens, extinguish the smoldering
materials. Record the results of the test and test three additional
F/PCPM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990
After removal of the
sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char
If all test
specimens have no ignition, or if the vertical char of each is less than
38 mm (1.5 in) upward from the crevice mark, the test material passes.
If one test
specimen has evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char equal to or
greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), test three additional specimens.
If all three
additional specimens have no evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical
char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in), the material passes.
additional specimen has evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char
equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), record a failure of the test
If two or more
original test specimens have evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical
char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more, record a failure of the test material.
This test procedure
is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any
suggestions, in writing, to:
HIGH POINT, NC 27261
A list of commercial
sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central.
F/PCTM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990